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PSC Flocculant Health and Safety Environmental Brochure http://snf.us/

PSC Flocculant Health and Safety Environmental Brochure

By Kamran Ardestani 10 June, 2016

 

Health and Environmental profile

 

 

 

Anionic polyacrylamide is the generic name for a group of very high molecular weight macro- molecules produced by the free-radical polymerization of acrylamide and an anionically charged comonomer, mainly the sodium salt of acrylic acid, sodium acrylate. The combination of molecular weight and ionic charge results in extremely viscous aqueous solutions, one of the main properties of these polymers.

 

 

Both the charge density (ionicity) and the molecular weight can be varied. By varying the acrylamide/anionic monomer ratio, a charge density from 0 to 100% along the polymer chain can be obtained. The molecular weight is determined by the type and concentration of the reaction initiator and the reaction parameters.

Anionic polyacrylamide has no systemic toxicity to aquatic organisms or micro-organisms. The polymer is much too large to be absorbed into tissues and cells. The functional anionic groups do not interfere with the functioning of fish gills or daphnia respirators. Any adverse effects observed in laboratory tests are always seen at concentrations of over 100 mg/L and are probably due to the resulting viscosity of the test medium. The preparation of the test solutions at such concentrations requires high-energy stirring for long periods of time, sometimes several hours. Therefore, it can be concluded that these harmful concentrations will not exist in the natural environment.

 

The test data given on page 4 of this document was obtained using a highly charged anionic polyacrylamide. Low charge density polymers demonstrate even lower toxicity to aquatic and micro-organisms. The results of assays on anionic polyacrylamides are determined mainly by the viscosity of the test solution.

 

Anionic polyacrylamide has no potential to bioaccumulate, being completely soluble in water (solubility is only limited by viscosity) and insoluble in octanol. Additionally, being a flocculant, it adsorbs onto suspended matter and, in this way, is removed from the water phase.

 

 

Chemical Identity

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.    Chemical identity

 

 

Chemical name :.  .  .  .  2-propenoic acid, sodium salt polymer with 2-propenamide

 

Other names : .  .  .  .  .  .  Copolymer of acrylamide and acrylic acid, sodium salt

Acrylamide, sodium acrylate  copolymer

CAS number :............................................ 25085 - 02 - 3

 

B.    Molecular structure

     

 

 

 

 

Anionic polyacrylamide: copolymer of acrylamide and acrylic acid, sodium salt

 

  C.    Physical-chemical properties

 

Molecular weight : . . . greater than 1,000,000 daltons, usually greater than 5,000,000 Solubility : . . . . . . . . totally miscible in water, insoluble in n-octanol and other solvents pH :  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .      . 6 to 8 in solution at 5g/L

Apparent density : ..~1.08 Melting point : . . . . .>150°C Log Pow :   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  –2

 

 

Mammalian Toxicology

 

 

A.    Acute tests

LD50/oral/rat  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . > 5000 mg/kg

SNF test F134 : OECD 401/GLP/Report dated December 28, 1991

 

B.    Irritation

Acute dermal irritation        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  Not irritating

Acute eye irritation          .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . Not irritating

Guillot, J.P., et al. “Safety Evaluation of Gums and Thickeners in Cosmetic Formulations.” Int. Journ. Cosmet. Sci., 1982. 4: p. 53-65.

 

C.    Mutagenicity

Ames Test with and without liver S9 .. ... .... ... ... .... ... ... .... ... ... ... .... ... ... .... ... ... .... .. Not mutagenic

Mallevialle, J., Brucher, A., and Fiessinger, F. “How Safe are Organic Polymers in Water Treatment?” Journal AWWA, 1984: p. 87-93.

 

D.    Long-term studies

No long term adverse effects in a lifetime feeding study in rats at 10% of diet. No long term adverse effects in a 2-year feeding study in dogs at 6% of diet. No effects on reproduction in a feeding study in rats at 10% of diet.

No carcinogenicity in any of the long-term animal studies.

McCollister, D.D., Hake, C.L., Sadek, S.E., and Rowe, V.K. “Toxicologic investigations of polyacrylamides.” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 1965. 7(5): p. 639-51.

 

 

 

 

Aquatic Toxicology

 

 

A.    Toxicity to fish

 

LC50 / Brachydanio rerio / 96 hours  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .    =                          357 mg/L

LC0 / Brachydanio rerio / 96 hours .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .    =                            178 mg/L

SNF test F242 : OECD 203/GLP/Report dated December 21, 1995

 

B.    Toxicity to daphnia

 

EC50 / Daphnia magna / 48 hours  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    =                           212 mg/L

SNF test F243 : OECD 202/GLP/Report dated December 21, 1995

 

C.    Toxicity to algae

 

EC50A (I) / Chlorella vulgaris / 96 hours .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    >                     1,000 mg/L

EC50µ (I) / Chlorella vulgaris / 96 hours .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . .    >                      1,000 mg/L

No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC)  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . .    =                          708 mg/L

SNF test F244 : OECD 201/GLP/Report dated December 21, 1995

 

 

D.    Toxicity to bacteria

 

EC10 / Pseudomonas putida / 18 hours   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .    =                        127 mg/L

EC50 / Pseudomonas putida / 18 hours   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .    =                        892 mg/L

SNF test F245 : OECD 301F, DIN 38412-27, ISO 7027/GLP/Report dated December 21, 1995

 

 

Environmental Fate

 

 

A.    Bioaccumulation

 

log Pow    ??2

SNF test 0911-01 : EC Method A8 (2008) & OECD 107 (1995)/GLP/Report dated November 19, 2009

 

This very low value demonstrates that anionic polyacrylamide is totally soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents. Thus, it has no potential to bioaccumulate.

Based on this, the Biocncentration Factor (BCF) = 0

 

B.    Abiotic degradation

 

Anionic polyacrylamide is sensitive to ultra-violet light which breaks down the polymer backbone into oligomers. A positive correlation is observed between the length of exposition to light and the degree of breakdown (i.e., reduction in molecular weight).

C.    Biodegradation

 

Non-degraded anionic polyacrylamide has been shown to be recalcitrant to microbial degradation. This is related to the extremely high molecular weight which renders microbial attack very difficult. However, the polymer can been degraded by UV light (photolysis) and the action of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) both of which are abundant in nature. Once the macromolecule is broken down to a molecular weight under 10,000 daltons it will be indistinguishable from the organic background in the soil /marine environment and will eventually degrade to a size where it can be biomineralized.

A study using C14 labelling, designed to evaluate the potential of anionic polyacrylamide to biodegrade demonstrated that a combination of photolysis and microbial attack leads to natural attenuation of these polymers. After 48 hours of exposure to UV, the oligomer (MW et al, 2002).

 

 

Residual Monomers

 

 

SNF takes the utmost care to ensure that the constituant monomers (in this case acrylamide and sodium acrylate) are as completely reacted as possible during polymerization. However, technically unavoidable traces can and do remain in the finished polymer, especially in powder products. For standard products, our quality assurance guarantees that all Floerger polyacrylamides contain less than 0.1% w/w (

Both acrylamide and sodium acrylate are readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions at over 90% in 28 days. Even at operating doses as high as 50 mg/L, the residual monomers released into the environment will never reach concentrations which could constitute a risk to the aquatic life. Their high biodegradibility negates the possibilty of accumulation in the natural environment.

Additional Info

Last modified on Monday, 13 June 2016 13:20
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Kamran Ardestani

The Pattison family has more than a 60-year history of contributing to their community and providing jobs and economic stability to the people of the region.

Today, Pattison Sand Company operates in Clayton, IA about 13 miles south of Prairie du Chien, WI on the banks of the Mississippi River. We employ upwards of 300 people. Pattison leads the charge towards American Energy Independence by producing industrial sand for the natural gas and oil industries. Pattison mines this sand from the St. Peter sandstone layer in both underground and surface mines.

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